Today I finished up a major component of colonies: Mining.
Any colony can build a colony module and upgrade that module to a maximum of Level 10. For each level you can install an Automated Mining Unit which will allow you to harvest the yield of the deposit the colony is sitting on. So if your colony is sitting on a Metals deposit that yields 10 / hour and you have a level 2 Mining module with 2 amu's installed you would be mining 20 metal ore per hour.
In the screenshot the deposit shown is much larger than it would be in the game. I want to make a conscious decision that it will be extremely difficult if not impossible for a colony to be self-sufficient just on the deposit it is located on. This should encourage trade and exploration.
I still haven't implemented the Manpower functionality for colonies, but eventually you will have a certain amount of Manpower Hours based on your population and the morale of the colony. You can then assign those hours to various modules and their efficiency will be determined by how well they are staffed.